5 years ago

Xanthohumol, a hop-derived prenylated flavonoid, promotes macrophage reverse cholesterol transport

Xanthohumol, a prominent prenyl flavonoid from the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.), is suggested to be antiatherogenic since it reportedly increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. It is not clear whether xanthohumol promotes reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), the most important antiatherogenic property of HDL; therefore, we investigated the effects of xanthohumol on macrophage-to-feces RCT using a hamster model as a CETP-expressing species. In vivo RCT experiments showed that xanthohumol significantly increased fecal appearance of the tracer derived from intraperitoneally injected [3H]-cholesterol-labeled macrophages. Ex vivo experiments were then employed to investigate the detailed mechanism by which xanthohumol enhanced RCT. Cholesterol efflux capacity from macrophages was 1.5-fold higher in xanthohumol-fed hamsters compared with the control group. In addition, protein expression and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity in the HDL fraction were significantly higher in xanthohumol-fed hamsters compared with the control, suggesting that xanthohumol promoted HDL maturation. Hepatic transcript analysis revealed that xanthohumol increased mRNA expression of abcg8 and cyp7a1. In addition, protein expressions of liver X receptor α and bile pump export protein were increased in the liver by xanthohumol administration when compared with the control, implying that it stimulated bile acid synthesis and cholesterol excretion to feces. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that xanthohumol improves RCT in vivo through cholesterol efflux from macrophages and excretion to feces, leading to antiatherosclerosis effects. It remains to be elucidated whether enhancement of RCT by xanthohumol could prove valuable in humans.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0955286316306568

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