Mechanistic insights on the reduction of glutathione disulfide by protein disulfide isomerase [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
We explore the enzymatic mechanism of the reduction of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) by the reduced a domain of human protein disulfide isomerase (hPDI) with atomistic resolution. We use classical molecular dynamics and hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations at the mPW1N/6–311+G(2d,2p):FF99SB//mPW1N/6–31G(d):FF99SB level. The reaction proceeds in two stages: (i) a thiol-disulfide exchange through nucleophilic attack of the Cys53-thiolate to the GSSG-disulfide followed by the deprotonation of Cys56-thiol by Glu47-carboxylate and (ii) a second thiol-disulfide exchange between the Cys56-thiolate and the mixed disulfide intermediate formed in the first step. The Gibbs activation energy for the first stage was 18.7 kcal·mol−1, and for the second stage, it was 7.2 kcal·mol−1, in excellent agreement with the experimental barrier (17.6 kcal·mol−1). Our results also suggest that the catalysis by protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and thiol-disulfide exchange is mostly enthalpy-driven (entropy changes below 2 kcal·mol−1 at all stages of the reaction). Hydrogen bonds formed between the backbone of His55 and Cys56 and the Cys56-thiol result in an increase in the Gibbs energy barrier of the first thiol-disulfide exchange. The solvent plays a key role in stabilizing the leaving glutathione thiolate formed. This role is not exclusively electrostatic, because an explicit inclusion of several water molecules at the density-functional theory level is a requisite to form the mixed disulfide intermediate. In the intramolecular oxidation of PDI, a transition state is only observed if hydrogen bond donors are nearby the mixed disulfide intermediate, which emphasizes that the thermochemistry of thiol-disulfide exchange in PDI is influenced by the presence of hydrogen bond donors.
Publisher URL: http://www.pnas.org/content/114/24/E4724.short
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