5 years ago

Multifaceted C-X-C Chemokine Receptor 4 (CXCR4) Inhibition Interferes with Anti–Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy–Induced Glioma Dissemination

Resistance to antiangiogenic therapy in glioblastoma (GBM) patients may involve hypoxia-induced expression of C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) on invading tumor cells, macrophage/microglial cells (MGCs), and glioma stem cells (GSCs). We determined whether antagonizing CXCR4 with POL5551 disrupts anti–vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy–induced glioma growth and dissemination. Mice bearing orthotopic CT-2A or GL261 gliomas received POL5551 and/or anti–VEGF antibody B20-4.1.1. Brain tissue was analyzed for tumor volume, invasiveness, hypoxia, vascular density, proliferation, apoptosis, GSCs, and MGCs. Glioma cells were evaluated for CXCR4 expression and polymorphism and POL5551's effects on CXCR4 ligand binding, cell viability, and migration. No CXCR4 mutations were identified. POL5551 inhibited CXCR4 binding to its ligand, stromal cell–derived factor-1α, and reduced hypoxia- and stromal cell–derived factor-1α–mediated migration dose–dependently but minimally affected cell viability. In vivo, B20-4.1.1 increased hypoxic foci and invasiveness, as seen in GBM patients receiving anti-VEGF therapy. Combination of POL5551 and B20-4.1.1 reduced both glioma invasiveness by 16% to 39% and vascular density compared to B20-4.1.1 alone in both glioma models. Reduced populations of GSCs and MGCs were also seen in CT-2A tumors. POL5551 concentrations, evaluated by mass spectrometry, were higher in tumors than in neighboring brain tissues, likely accounting for the results. Inhibition of CXCR4-regulated tumoral, stem cell, and immune mechanisms by adjunctive CXCR4 antagonists may help overcome antiangiogenic therapy resistance, benefiting GBM patients.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0002944017302869

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