5 years ago

Differences of first-pass effect in the liver and intestine contribute to the stereoselective pharmacokinetics of rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline epimers in rats

Differences of first-pass effect in the liver and intestine contribute to the stereoselective pharmacokinetics of rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline epimers in rats
Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil., is a plant species used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. Rhynchophylline (RIN) and isorhynchophylline (IRN), a pair of epimers, are major alkaloids isolated from U. rhynchophylla and exhibit diverse pharmacological effects. Our previous study demonstrated that the pharmacokinetics of these epimers existed stereoselectivity after oral administration; however, the specific mechanism remains unknown and merits investigation. Aim of the study In the present study, the aim was to elucidate the mechanism underlying stereoselective pharmacokinetic characteristics of RIN and IRN in rats. Materials and methods The total (F), hepatic (Fh) and intestinal (Fa·Fg) bioavailabilities of each epimer were measured using portal vein cannulated rats following different dosing routes (intravenous, intraportal and intraduodenal) to assess individual contributions of the liver and intestine in stereoselective pharmacokinetics. Then the differences of first-pass metabolism in the liver and intestine between two epimers were evaluated by in vitro incubation with rat liver microsomes, intestinal S9 and gastrointestinal (GI) content solutions, respectively. Meanwhile, the membrane permeability and efflux by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) were examined by in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion with and without P-gp inhibitor verapamil. The configurational interconversion at different pH values and the excretions via feces and urine were also examined. Results Pharmacokinetic data showed that the total bioavailability of RIN was 5.9 folds higher than that of IRN (23.4% vs. 4.0%). The hepatic availability of RIN was 4.6 folds higher than that of IRN (46.9% vs. 10.3%), whereas the intestinal availability of RIN (48.1%) was comparable to that of IRN (42.7%). In addition, intestinal perfusion showed that IRN possessed higher intestinal permeability than RIN and co-perfusion with verapamil could affect absorption process of RIN but not IRN. Conversely, the metabolism rate of IRN in rat liver microsomes was significantly faster than that of RIN, resulting in a lower systemic exposure of IRN after oral administration. The degradation in GI lumen and epimerization between two epimers also existed but had small contributions. Additionally, the excretions of both epimers via feces and urine were negligible. Conclusions Taken together, different first-pass metabolism in the liver was the major factor responsible for the stereoselective pharmacokinetics of RIN and IRN.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0378874117307651

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