4 years ago

Quantification of N -phenyl-2-naphthylamine by gas chromatography and isotope-dilution mass spectrometry and its percutaneous absorption ex vivo under workplace conditions

Heiko Udo Käfferlein, Gerhard Schlüter, Tobias Weiss, Thomas Brüning, Manigé Fartasch, Eike Maximilian Marek, Stephan Koslitz


N-Phenyl-2-naphthylamine (P2NA) is an antioxidant used to protect rubbers from flex-cracking. P2NA can be converted in vivo to 2NA, one of the most potent bladder carcinogens. Here, we report the specific and ultra-sensitive quantification of P2NA in the receptor fluid of Franz diffusion cells by gas chromatography and isotope-dilution tandem-mass spectroscopy (GC–MS/MS). The experimental conditions were optimized to minimize losses of P2NA due to surface absorption on glass, plastic, and rubber material, and subsequently validated. Static and dynamic diffusion cell conditions were used to study the percutaneous penetration of P2NA into freshly prepared porcine skin. The experimental settings closely resembled those of the printing industry in the 1960s/1970s in Germany where P2NA-containing solutions in dichloromethane have been used. P2NA penetrated the skin at very low levels (0.02 ± 0.01 µg/cm2/h) with a cumulative penetrated amount of 0.80 ± 0.26 µg/cm2, a lag time of 6.33 ± 2.21 h and under dynamic conditions. Compared to the receptor fluid, 10–40-fold higher concentrations were found in the skin, predominantly in the dermis and the stratum corneum. Dichloromethane acted as a penetration enhancer by increasing the cumulative penetrated amounts and the recovery of P2NA in both the receptor fluid and the skin, while shortening its lag time. However, the flux remained unaffected. Due to its accumulation in subcutaneous layers, we finally proved that P2NA is continuously released into the receptor fluid despite exposure cessation up to 160 h. Overall, the results show that close attention has to be paid to dermal absorption of P2NA in exposed workers.

Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00204-017-2046-2

DOI: 10.1007/s00204-017-2046-2

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