4 years ago

Exenatide mitigated diet-induced vascular aging and atherosclerotic plaque growth in ApoE-deficient mice under chronic stress

Exposure to psychosocial stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Because the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) agonist prevents cardiovascular injury, we investigated the beneficial effects and mechanism of the GLP-1 analogue exenatide on stress-related vascular senescence and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE −/−) mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Methods ApoE −/− mice fed the HF diet were assigned to non-stressed and immobilized-stress groups for 12 weeks. Mice fed the HF diet were divided into 2 groups and administered vehicle or exenatide for 12 weeks under stress conditions. Results Chronic stress enhanced vascular endothelial senescence and atherosclerotic plaque growth. The stress increased the levels of plasma depeptidyl peptidase-4 activity and decreased the levels of plasma GLP-1 and both plasma and adipose adiponectin (APN). As compared with the mice subjected to stress alone, the exenatide-treated mice had decreased plaque microvessel density, macrophage accumulation, broken elastin, and enhanced plaque collagen volume, and lowered levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, gp91phox osteopontin, C-X-C chemokine receptor-4, toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), TLR4, and cathepsins K, L, and S mRNAs and/or proteins. Exenatide reduced aortic matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and MMP-2 gene expression and activities. Exenatide also stimulated APN expression of preadipocytes and inhibited ox-low density lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation of monocytes in stressed mice. Conclusions These results indicate that the exenatide-mediated beneficial vascular actions are likely attributable, at least in part, to the enhancement of APN production and the attenuation of plaque oxidative stress, inflammation, and proteolysis in ApoE −/− mice under chronic stress.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0021915017311899

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