5 years ago

[Scleritis and episcleritis].

Héron E, Bourcier T
Episcleritis is generally a benign disease with a self-limited course, while scleritis is a severe ocular condition due to a risk of impaired vision in one-fifth of patients and its association with systemic diseases in one third of them. Infectious scleritis, representing 8 % of the etiologies, is mainly of herpetic origin (varicella zoster and herpes simplex viruses). A systemic autoimmune disease is observed in roughly 30 % of scleritis patients: inflammatory rheumatisms (15 %), firstly rheumatoid polyarthritis, systemic vasculitides (8 %), mainly granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) and polychondritis, and less often inflammatory bowel disease and systemic lupus erythematosus. Among the different types of scleritis, a clear distinction exists between necrotizing forms leading to decreased vision in 50 % of the cases and associated with systemic diseases in the vast majority, and non-necrotizing forms (either diffuse or nodular), with a better prognosis. However, recent publications show that necrotizing forms are much less frequent nowadays (around 5 % of the total), probably due to therapeutic innovations and progress made during the last 20 years. The medical management of scleritis requires collaboration between ophthalmologists and internists (or rheumatologists).

Publisher URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28916114

DOI: PubMed:28916114

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