4 years ago

Regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics by the non-canonical roles of mitochondrial dynamics proteins in the heart.

Sheu SS, Wang W, Fernandez-Sanz C
Recent advancement in mitochondrial research has significantly extended our knowledge on the role and regulation of mitochondria in health and disease. One important breakthrough is the delineation of how mitochondrial morphological changes, termed mitochondrial dynamics, are coupled to the bioenergetics and signaling functions of mitochondria. In general, it is believed that fusion leads to an increased mitochondrial respiration efficiency and resistance to stress-induced dysfunction while fission does the contrary. This concept seems not applicable to adult cardiomyocytes. The mitochondria in adult cardiomyocytes exhibit fragmented morphology (tilted towards fission) and show less networking and movement as compared to other cell types. However, being the most energy-demanding cells, cardiomyocytes in the adult heart possess vast number of mitochondria, high level of energy flow, and abundant mitochondrial dynamics proteins. This apparent discrepancy could be explained by recently identified new functions of the mitochondrial dynamics proteins. These "non-canonical" roles of mitochondrial dynamics proteins range from controlling inter-organelle communication to regulating cell viability and survival under metabolic stresses. Here, we summarize the newly identified non-canonical roles of mitochondrial dynamics proteins. We focus on how these fission and fusion independent roles of dynamics proteins regulate mitochondrial bioenergetics. We also discuss potential molecular mechanisms, unique intracellular location, and the cardiovascular disease relevance of these non-canonical roles of the dynamics proteins. We propose that future studies are warranted to differentiate the canonical and non-canonical roles of dynamics proteins and to identify new approaches for the treatment of heart diseases.

Publisher URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28918113

DOI: PubMed:28918113

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