4 years ago

Type 2 diabetes mellitus BALB/c mice are more susceptible to granulomatous amoebic encephalitis: Immunohistochemical study.

Rodriguez-Sosa M, Romero Grijalva M, Lorenzo-Morales J, Castelan-Ramirez I, Juarez-Avelar I, Hernandez-Martinez D, Espinosa-Villanueva J, Mendez-Cruz AR, Salazar-Villatoro L, Salinas-Lara C, Gonzalez-Robles A, Omaña-Molina M, Aley-Medina P, Sanchez-Rocha R
Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) is a chronic, difficult to resolve infection caused by amphizoic amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba, which in most cases occurs in immunosuppressed persons or with chronic diseases such as diabetes. In this study, we describe the early events of A. culbertsoni infection of GAE in diabetic mice model. Diabetes was induced in male BALB/c mice, with a dose of streptozotocin (130 mg/kg). Healthy and diabetic mice were inoculated via intranasal with 1 × 106 trophozoites of A. culbertsoni. Then were sacrificed and fixed by perfusion at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-inoculation, the brains and nasopharyngeal meatus were processed to immunohistochemical analysis. Invasion of trophozoites in diabetic mice was significantly greater with respect to inoculated healthy mice. Trophozoites and scarce cysts were immunolocalized in respiratory epithelial bone tissue, olfactory nerve packets, Schwann cells and the epineurium base since early 24 h post-inoculation. After 48 h, trophozoites were observed in the respiratory epithelium, white matter of the brain, subcortical central cortex and nasopharyngeal associated lymphoid tissue (NALT). At 72 h, cysts and trophozoites were immunolocalized in the olfactory bulb with the presence of a low inflammatory infiltrate characterized by polymorphonuclear cells. Scarce amoebae were observed in the granular layer of the cerebellum without evidence of inflammation or tissue damage. No amoebas were observed at 96 h after inoculation, suggesting penetration to other tissues at this time. In line with this, no inflammatory infiltrate was observed in the surrounding tissues where the amoebae were immunolocalized, which could contribute to the rapid spread of infection, particularly in diabetic mice. All data suggest that trophozoites invade the tissues by separating the superficial cells, penetrating between the junctions without causing cytolytic effect in the adjacent cells and subsequently reaching the CNS, importantly, diabetes increases the susceptibility to amoebae infection, which could favor the GAE development.

Publisher URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28917708

DOI: PubMed:28917708

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