5 years ago

The operation of a Research and Development (R&D) program and its significance for practice change in community pharmacy

Erica Sainsbury, Ines Krass, Andi Hermansyah

by Andi Hermansyah, Erica Sainsbury, Ines Krass


Community pharmacy practice in Australia is changing and Research and Development (R&D) in community pharmacy plays an important role in contributing to the changes. A range of Cognitive Pharmacy Services (CPS) were developed from R&D programs, yet their implementation has been minimal indicating slow practice change within community pharmacy. Given the vital role of R&D, little is known about the operation and the extent to which it has been effective in supporting practice change in community pharmacy.


In depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 key stakeholders in the pharmacy and healthcare system in Australia. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim and analysed using an inductive approach.


Participants perceived that the R&D program has played an important role in the advent of CPS. Furthermore, they considered that evidence generated by the R&D projects is a critical influence on policy formulation, funding and implementation of CPS into practice. However, policy decisions and subsequent implementation are also influenced by other factors associated with context and facilitation which in turn foster or inhibit effective Knowledge Translation (KT) in the community pharmacy sector.


While R&D programs have been viewed as essential for supporting changes in community pharmacy practice through development and funding of CPS, the overall impact has been small, as contemporary practice continues to be predominantly a dispensing model. Given the complexity and dynamic nature of the community pharmacy system, stakeholders must take into account the inter-relationship between context, evidence and facilitation for successful KT in community pharmacy practice.

Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184954

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