[PSI+] prion propagation is controlled by inositol polyphosphates [Genetics]
The yeast prions [PSI+] and [URE3] are folded in-register parallel β-sheet amyloids of Sup35p and Ure2p, respectively. In a screen for antiprion systems curing [PSI+] without protein overproduction, we detected Siw14p as an antiprion element. An array of genetic tests confirmed that many variants of [PSI+] arising in the absence of Siw14p are cured by restoring normal levels of the protein. Siw14p is a pyrophosphatase specifically cleaving the β phosphate from 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5PP-IP5), suggesting that increased levels of this or some other inositol polyphosphate favors [PSI+] propagation. In support of this notion, we found that nearly all variants of [PSI+] isolated in a WT strain were lost upon loss of ARG82, which encodes inositol polyphosphate multikinase. Inactivation of the Arg82p kinase by D131A and K133A mutations (preserving Arg82p’s nonkinase transcription regulation functions) resulted the loss of its ability to support [PSI+] propagation. The loss of [PSI+] in arg82Δ is independent of Hsp104’s antiprion activity. [PSI+] variants requiring Arg82p could propagate in ipk1Δ (IP5 kinase), kcs1Δ (IP6 5-kinase), vip1Δ (IP6 1-kinase), ddp1Δ (inositol pyrophosphatase), or kcs1Δ vip1Δ mutants but not in ipk1Δ kcs1Δ or ddp1Δ kcs1Δ double mutants. Thus, nearly all [PSI+] prion variants require inositol poly-/pyrophosphates for their propagation, and at least IP6 or 5PP-IP4 can support [PSI+] propagation.
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