3 years ago

Turbulent kinetic energy in the right ventricle: Potential MR marker for risk stratification of adults with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot

Carl-Johan Carlhäll, Alexandru Fredriksson, Jan Engvall, Petter Dyverfeldt, Aleksandra Trzebiatowska-Krzynska, Tino Ebbers
Purpose To assess right ventricular (RV) turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rToF) and a spectrum of pulmonary regurgitation (PR), as well as to investigate the relationship between these 4D flow markers and RV remodeling. Materials and Methods Seventeen patients with rToF and 10 healthy controls were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups based on PR fraction: one lower PR fraction group (≤11%) and one higher PR fraction group (>11%). Field strength/sequences: 3D cine phase contrast (4D flow), 2D cine phase contrast (2D flow), and balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) at 1.5T. Assessment: The RV volume was segmented in the morphologic short-axis images and TKE parameters were computed inside the segmented RV volume throughout diastole. Statistical tests: One-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post-hoc test; unpaired t-test; Pearson correlation coefficients; simple and stepwise multiple regression models; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results The higher PR fraction group had more remodeled RVs (140 ± 25 vs. 107 ± 22 [lower PR fraction, P < 0.01] and 93 ± 15 ml/m2 [healthy, P < 0.001] for RV end-diastolic volume index [RVEDVI]) and higher TKE values (5.95 ± 3.15 vs. 2.23 ± 0.81 [lower PR fraction, P < 0.01] and 1.91 ± 0.78 mJ [healthy, P < 0.001] for Peak Total RV TKE). Multiple regression analysis between RVEDVI and 4D/2D flow parameters showed that Peak Total RV TKE was the strongest predictor of RVEDVI (R2 = 0.47, P = 0.002). Conclusion The 4D flow-specific TKE markers showed a slightly stronger association with RV remodeling than conventional 2D flow PR parameters. These results suggest novel hemodynamic aspects of PR in the development of late complications after ToF repair. Level of Evidence: 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/jmri.25830

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