Monte Carlo Tree Search for Asymmetric Trees.
We present an extension of Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) that strongly increases its efficiency for trees with asymmetry and/or loops. Asymmetric termination of search trees introduces a type of uncertainty for which the standard upper confidence bound (UCB) formula does not account. Our first algorithm (MCTS-T), which assumes a non-stochastic environment, backs-up tree structure uncertainty and leverages it for exploration in a modified UCB formula. Results show vastly improved efficiency in a well-known asymmetric domain in which MCTS performs arbitrarily bad. Next, we connect the ideas about asymmetric termination to the presence of loops in the tree, where the same state appears multiple times in a single trace. An extension to our algorithm (MCTS-T+), which in addition to non-stochasticity assumes full state observability, further increases search efficiency for domains with loops as well. Benchmark testing on a set of OpenAI Gym and Atari 2600 games indicates that our algorithms always perform better than or at least equivalent to standard MCTS, and could be first-choice tree search algorithms for non-stochastic, fully-observable environments.
Publisher URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1805.09218
Researcher is an app designed by academics, for academics. Create a personalised feed in two minutes.
Choose from over 15,000 academics journals covering ten research areas then let Researcher deliver you papers tailored to your interests each day.
Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.