3 years ago

Magnetic-luminescent cerium-doped gadolinium aluminum garnet nanoparticles for simultaneous imaging and photodynamic therapy of cancer cells

Magnetic-luminescent cerium-doped gadolinium aluminum garnet nanoparticles for simultaneous imaging and photodynamic therapy of cancer cells
Patricia Juárez, Akhil Jain, Rina Koyani, Prakhar Sengar, Oscar E. Contreras, Carlos Muñoz, Gustavo A. Hirata
Nanoparticle (NP) and photosensitizer (PS) conjugates capable of X-ray photodynamic therapy (X-PDT) are a research focus due to their potential applications in cancer treatment. Combined with X-PDT, appropriate imaging properties of the nanocomposite will make it suitable for theranostics of deep lying tumors. In this work, we describe the development of magnetic-luminescent Gd2.98Ce0.02Al5O12 nanoparticles (GAG) coated with mesoporous silica (mSiO2) and loaded with rose bengal (RB) to yield a nanocomposite GAG@mSiO2@RB capable of X-PDT. GAG nanoparticles were synthesized using the sol-gel method. The synthesized GAG nanoparticles showed a strong visible yellow emission with a quantum yield of ∼32%. Moreover, the broad emission spectra of GAG nanoparticles centered at 585 nm showed a good overlap with the absorption of RB. Upon irradiation with X-rays (55 KV), the GAG@mSiO2@RB nanocomposite produced significantly higher singlet oxygen compared with RB alone, as confirmed by the 1,2-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF) assay. The developed GAG@mSiO2@RB nanocomposite significantly reduced the viability of human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells upon irradiation with blue light (λ = 470 nm). The calculated LC50 of GAG@mSiO2@RB nanocomposites were 26.69, 11.2, and 6.56 µg/mL at a dose of ∼0.16, 0.33 and 0.5 J/cm2, respectively. Moreover, the nanocomposite showed paramagnetic properties with high magnetic mass susceptibility which are useful for high contrast T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Together with X-PDT, the paramagnetic properties of the proposed GAG@mSiO2@RB nanocomposite system are promising for their future application in simultaneous detection and treatment of deep-lying tumors.
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