3 years ago

Diffusion effect on T2 relaxometry in triple-echo steady state free precession sequence

Diffusion effect on T2 relaxometry in triple-echo steady state free precession sequence
Changjun Tie, Qian Wan, Dong Liang, Chao Zou, Yangzi Qiao, Chuanli Cheng, Xin Liu, Hairong Zheng, Yiu-Cho Chung
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of diffusion on SSFP (Steady-state Free Precession) signals in triple-echo steady state (TESS) sequence and ultimately on the accuracy of T2 relaxometry. Methods The extended phase graph (EPG) algorithm was used to study the effect of diffusion on SSFP signals and T2 relaxometry. The simulation results were verified by a commercial phantom and in vivo studies. Based on the simulation results, a correction scheme was proposed to correct the estimated T2 values. Results T2 underestimation in TESS was evident in case of small flip angle and large unbalanced gradient moment on objects with large T2 and D values. The T2 underestimation mainly originated from the diffusion sensitivity of SSFP-echo. It was also observed that SSFP-FID (Free Induction Decay) signals increased with increasing diffusion weighting under some specific conditions. The proposed correction scheme corrected the T2 underestimation, which verified that the underestimation was due to the neglect of diffusion effect. For clinical practice of TESS in tissues with short T2 such as cartilage and muscle, the diffusion effect of TESS is negligible. Conclusion The effect of diffusion cannot be neglected during TESS T2 quantification as it is the main source of T2 underestimation when small flip angle and large unbalanced gradient moment is used, especially for objects with large T2 and D values.
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