3 years ago

Lorentzian effects in magnetic susceptibility mapping of anisotropic biological tissues

Lorentzian effects in magnetic susceptibility mapping of anisotropic biological tissues
Dmitriy A. Yablonskiy, Alexander L. Sukstanskii
The ultimate goal of MRI is to provide information on biological tissue microstructure and function. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) is one of the newer approaches for studying tissue microstructure by means of measuring phase of Gradient Recalled Echo (GRE) MRI signal. The fundamental question in the heart of this approach is: what is the relationship between the net phase/frequency of the GRE signal from an imaging voxel and the underlying tissue microstructure at the cellular and sub-cellular levels? In the presence of external magnetic field, biological media (e.g. cells, cellular components, blood) become magnetized leading to the MR signal frequency shift that is affected not only by bulk magnetic susceptibility but by the local cellular environment as well. The latter effect is often termed the Lorentzian contribution to the frequency shift. Evaluating the Lorentzian contribution – one of the most intriguing and challenging problems in this field – is the main focus of this review. While the traditional approach to this problem is based on introduction of an imaginary Lorentzian cavity, a more rigorous treatment was proposed recently based on a statistical approach and a direct solution of the Maxwell equations. This approach, termed the Generalized Lorentzian Tensor Approach (GLTA), is especially fruitful for describing anisotropic biological media. The GLTA adequately accounts for two types of anisotropy: anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and tissue structural anisotropy (e.g., cylindrical axonal bundles in white matter). In the framework of the GLTA the frequency shift due to the local environment is described in terms of the Lorentzian tensor L ̂ which can have a substantially different structure than the susceptibility tensor χ ̂ . While the components of χ ̂ are compartmental susceptibilities “weighted” by their volume fractions, the components of L ̂ are additionally weighted by specific numerical factors depending on cellular geometrical symmetry. In addition to describing the GLTA that is a phenomenological approach largely based on considering the system symmetry, we also briefly discuss a microscopic approaches to the problem that are based on modeling of the MR signal in different regimes (i.e. static dephasing vs. motion narrowing) and in different cellular environments (e.g., accounting for WM microstructure).
You might also like
Never Miss Important Research

Researcher is an app designed by academics, for academics. Create a personalised feed in two minutes.
Choose from over 15,000 academics journals covering ten research areas then let Researcher deliver you papers tailored to your interests each day.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.