5 years ago

Harnessing Photochemical Shrinkage in Direct Laser Writing for Shape Morphing of Polymer Sheets

Harnessing Photochemical Shrinkage in Direct Laser Writing for Shape Morphing of Polymer Sheets
Chiara Daraio, Osama R. Bilal, Sebastian Krödel, Jan Rys, Andrei Constantinescu, Anton A. Bauhofer
Structures that change their shape in response to external stimuli unfold possibilities for more efficient and versatile production of 3D objects. Direct laser writing (DLW) is a technique based on two-photon polymerization that allows the fabrication of microstructures with complex 3D geometries. Here, it is shown that polymerization shrinkage in DLW can be utilized to create structures with locally controllable residual stresses that enable programmable, self-bending behavior. To demonstrate this concept, planar and 3D-structured sheets are preprogrammed to evolve into bio-inspired shapes (lotus flowers and shark skins). The fundamental mechanisms that control the self-bending behavior are identified and tested with microscale experiments. Based on the findings, an analytical model is introduced to quantitatively predict bending curvatures of the fabricated sheets. The proposed method enables simple fabrication of objects with complex geometries and precisely controllable shape morphing potential, while drastically reducing the required fabrication times for producing 3D, hierarchical microstructures over large areas in the order of square centimeters. Programmable self-bending microsheets are fabricated by locally controlling residual stresses that occur due to photochemical shrinkage in direct laser writing. Capillary action, residual stresses, and adhesion forces are identified as driving factors for the shape transformations and quantified experimentally. Multilayer beam bending theory is applied to model and predict detachment and bending curvatures of the fabricated samples.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/adma.201703024

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