3 years ago

Apical Periodontitis, a Predictor Variable for Preeclampsia: A Case-control Study

Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after the 20th week of gestation. There is an association between systemic inflammation and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as PE. Therefore, for the first time, the present study aimed to investigate the possible association between maternal apical periodontitis (AP) and PE. Methods In this case-control study, 50 mothers who were diagnosed with PE during pregnancy were included in the experimental group. The control group consisted of 50 matched mothers with a normal course of pregnancy. The endodontic and periodontal status of all participants was reviewed using the digital panoramic radiographs that were available before pregnancy. The number of remaining teeth and the presence of AP in all teeth and endodontically treated teeth were recorded using the periapical index. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the possible association between AP and PE (α = 0.05). Results AP in at least 1 tooth was found in 27 of the mothers who developed PE (54%) and in 16 of the control patients (32%) (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4, P < .05). Adjusted for the maternal periodontitis, number of teeth, and endodontic treatment, maternal AP was significantly associated with the occurrence of PE (P < .05; OR = 2.23; 95% confidence interval, 95% = 1.92–6.88). Conclusions AP was significantly more prevalent in the experimental group. For the first time, this study has provided evidence that maternal AP may be a strong independent predictor of PE. Considering the high occurrence of PE, particularly in developing countries, it could be suggested that the risk of PE may be reduced through comprehensive dental examinations for detecting and treating any source of inflammation, including AP, before pregnancy.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0099239917306994

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