3 years ago

Chemoradiation and Local Excision for T2N0 Rectal Cancer Offers Equivalent Overall Survival Compared to Standard Resection: a National Cancer Database Analysis

George J. Nassif, Sam B. Atallah, Matthew R. Albert, Ravi Shridhar, Justin Kelly, John R. T. Monson, Lawrence Lee

Abstract

Background

Local excision (LE) alone is associated with worse survival compared to radical surgery (RS) for T2 rectal cancer, but LE with additional chemoradiation (CRT) may improve outcomes. The objective of this study was to compare combined CRT and LE versus RS for T2 rectal cancer.

Methods

The 2004–2014 National Cancer Database was queried for patients with T2N0M0 rectal cancer undergoing LE with neoadjuvant(NA-CRT + LE) or adjuvant(LE + Adj-CRT) CRT, or RS. The main outcome was 5-year overall survival (OS). Cox proportional hazards was used to determine the independent effect of treatment on OS.

Results

A total of 4822 patients were included (4367 RS, 242 CRT + LE, 213 LE + Adj-CRT). Mean follow-up was 48.6 (SD28.5) months. There were no differences in patient characteristics, but more high-risk features in the LE + Adj-CRT group. There were no differences in 90-day mortality. Five-year OS was similar (RS 77.4% vs. CRT + LE 76.1% vs. LE + Adj-CRT 79.7%, p = 0.786). Older age, male gender, and higher Charlson score were independently associated with worse OS, whereas treatment type was not. If 90-day mortality was excluded, LE + Adj-CRT was independently associated with worse OS compared to RS.

Conclusions

CRT with LE for T2N0M0 rectal cancer was not associated with worse OS compared to RS, and may be a viable treatment modality.

Publisher URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11605-017-3536-5

DOI: 10.1007/s11605-017-3536-5

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