5 years ago

Characterization of the Micro-Environment of the Testis that Shapes the Phenotype and Function of Testicular Macrophages.

Fijak M, Meinhardt A, Chakraborty T, Lochnit G, Wang M, Zhang L, Markmann M, Nüsing RM, Konrad L, Wudy SA, Hartmann MF, Bhushan S, Hossain H, Gu H
Macrophages are important in the activation of innate immune responses and in a tissue-specific manner in the maintenance of organ homeostasis. Testicular macrophages (TM), which reside in the testicular interstitial space, comprise the largest leukocyte population in the testes and are assumed to play a relevant function in maintaining testicular immune privilege. Numerous studies have indicated that the interstitial fluid (IF) surrounding the TM has immunosuppressive properties, which may influence the phenotype of TM. However, the identity of the immunosuppressive molecules present in the IF is poorly characterized. We show that the rat testicular IF shifted GM-CSF-induced M1 toward the M2 macrophage phenotype. IF-polarized M2 macrophages mimic the properties of TM, such as increased expression of CD163, high secretion of IL-10, and low secretion of TNF-α. In addition, IF-polarized macrophages display immunoregulatory functions by inducing expansion of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells. We further found that corticosterone was the principal immunosuppressive molecule present in the IF and that the glucocorticoid receptor is needed for induction of the testis-specific phenotype of TM. In addition, TM locally produce small amounts of corticosterone, which suppresses the basal expression of inflammatory genes as a means to render TM refractory to inflammatory stimuli. Taken together, these results suggest that the corticosterone present in the testicular environment shapes the immunosuppressive function and phenotype of TM and that this steroid may play an important role in the establishment and sustenance of the immune privilege of the testis.

Publisher URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28461571

DOI: PubMed:28461571

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.