5 years ago

Central nervous system involvement in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss): Report of 26 patients and review of the literature

Although peripheral nervous system involvement is common in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), central nervous system (CNS) manifestations are poorly described. This study aimed to describe CNS involvement in EGPA. Patients and methods This retrospective, observational, multicenter study included patients with EGPA and CNS involvement affecting cranial nerves, brain and/or spinal cord. We also undertook a systematic literature review. Results We analyzed 26 personal cases and 62 previously reported cases. At EGPA diagnosis, asthma was noted in 97%, eosinophilia in 98%, peripheral neuropathy in 55% and cardiac involvement in 41%. 38/71 (54%) were ANCA-positive, with a perinuclear-labeling pattern and/or anti-MPO specificity. CNS was involved in 86% at EGPA diagnosis, preceded EGPA in 2%, and occurred during follow-up in 12% after a median of 24months. Main neurological manifestations were ischemic cerebrovascular lesions in 46 (52%), intracerebral hemorrhage and/or subarachnoid hemorrhage in 21 (24%), loss of visual acuity in 28 (33%) (15 with optic neuritis, 9 with central retinal artery occlusion, 4 with cortical blindness), and cranial nerves palsies in 18 (21%), with 25 patients having ≥1 of these clinical CNS manifestations. Among the 81 patients with assessable neurological responses, 43% had complete responses without sequelae, 43% had partial responses with long-term sequelae and 14% refractory disease. After a mean follow-up of 36months, 11 patients died including 5 from intracerebral hemorrhages. Conclusion EGPA-related CNS manifestations form 4 distinct neurological pictures: ischemic lesions, intracerebral hemorrhages, cranial nerve palsies and loss of visual acuity. Such manifestation should prompt practitioners to consider EGPA in such conditions. Long-term neurological sequelae were common, and intracerebral hemorrhages had the worst prognostic impact.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S1568997217301787

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