3 years ago

Association between long-term low-intensity cigarette smoking and incidence of smoking-related cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP cohort

Neil Caporaso, Patricia Hartge, Neal D. Freedman, Linda M. Liao, Maki Inoue-Choi
An increasing proportion of US smokers smoke ≤10 cigarettes per day (CPD) or do not smoke every day, yet the health effects of low-intensity smoking are poorly understood. We identified lifelong smokers of <1 or 1-10 CPD and evaluated risk of incident cancer among 238,525 cancer-free adults, aged 59-82, in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. A questionnaire administered in 2004-2005 assessed CPD during nine age-periods (<15 to ≥70). We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression with age as the underlying time metric. Of the 18,233 current smokers (7.6%), 137 and 1,243 reported consistently smoking <1 CPD and 1-10 CPD, respectively. Relative to never smokers, current smokers who reported consistently smoking 1-10 CPD over their lifetime were 2.34 (95% CI=1.86-2.93) times more likely to develop smoking-related cancer. Current lifetime smokers of <1 CPD were 1.89 (95% CI=0.90-3.96) times more likely to develop tobacco-related cancer, although the association did not reach statistical significance. Associations were observed for lifelong smoking of ≤10 CPD with lung cancer (HR=9.65, 95% CI=6.93-13.43); bladder cancer (HR=2.22, 95% CI=1.22-4.05); and pancreatic cancer (HR=2.03, 95%CI: 1.05-3.95). Among lifelong ≤10 CPD smokers, former smokers had lower risks of smoking-related cancer with longer time since cessation and longer smoking duration. Lifelong <1 and 1-10 CPD smokers are at increased risk of incident cancer relative to never smokers and would benefit from cessation, providing further evidence that even even low-levels of cigarette smoking cause cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/ijc.31059

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