3 years ago

Contralateral Breast Cancers: Independent Cancers or Metastases?

Irina Ostrovnaya, Colin B Begg, Charlotte KY Ng, Anastasios D Papanastasiou, Felipe C Geyer, Kathleen A Burke, Jonine L Bernstein, Jorge S Reis-Filho, Audrey Mauguen, Salvatore Piscuoglio, Rita Sakr, Venkatraman E Seshan, Tari A King, Monica Morrow, Britta Weigelt, Irene Orlow
A cancer in the contralateral breast in a woman with a previous or synchronous breast cancer is typically considered to be an independent primary tumor. Emerging evidence suggests that in a small subset of these cases the second tumor represents a metastasis. We sought to investigate the issue using massively parallel sequencing targeting 254 genes recurrently mutated in breast cancer. We examined the tumor archives at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center for the period 1995-2006 to identify cases of contralateral breast cancer where surgery for both tumors was performed at the Center. We report results from 49 patients successfully analyzed by a targeted massively parallel sequencing assay. Somatic mutations and copy number alterations were defined by state-of-the-art algorithms. Clonal relatedness was evaluated by statistical tests specifically designed for this purpose. We found evidence that the tumors in contralateral breasts were clonally related in 3 cases (6%) on the basis of matching mutations at codons where somatic mutations are rare. Clinical data and the presence of similar patterns of gene copy number alterations were consistent with metastasis for all 3 cases. In 3 additional cases there was a solitary matching mutation at a common PIK3CA locus. The results suggest that a subset of contralateral breast cancers represent metastases rather than independent primary tumors. Massively parallel sequencing analysis can provide important evidence to clarify the diagnosis. However, given the inter-tumor mutational heterogeneity in breast cancer, sufficiently large gene panels need to be employed to define clonality convincingly in all cases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/ijc.31051

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