3 years ago

Enhanced Brain Delivery of 2-(Phosphonomethyl)pentanedioic Acid Following Intranasal Administration of Its γ-Substituted Ester Prodrugs

Enhanced Brain Delivery of 2-(Phosphonomethyl)pentanedioic Acid Following Intranasal Administration of Its γ-Substituted Ester Prodrugs
Elie Pommier, Barbara S. Slusher, Ying Wu, Andrej Jančařík, Kristen R. Hollinger, Krystyna Wozniak, Caroline Garrett, Michael Nedelcovych, Pavel Majer, Camilo Rojas, Jesse Alt, Ranjeet P. Dash, Alexandra J. Gadiano, Rana Rais, Ajit G. Thomas, Sarah C. Zimmermann, Lukáš Tenora
2-(Phosphonomethyl)pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA) is a potent and selective inhibitor of glutamate carboxypeptidase-II (GCPII) with efficacy in multiple neurological and psychiatric disease models, but its clinical utility is hampered by low brain penetration due to the inclusion of multiple acidic functionalities. We recently reported an improvement in the brain-to-plasma ratio of 2-PMPA after intranasal (IN) dosing in both rodents and primates. Herein, we describe the synthesis of several 2-PMPA prodrugs with further improved brain delivery of 2-PMPA after IN administration by masking of the γ-carboxylate. When compared to IN 2-PMPA in rats at 1 h post dose, γ-(4-acetoxybenzyl)-2-PMPA (compound 1) resulted in significantly higher 2-PMPA delivery to both plasma (4.1-fold) and brain (11-fold). Subsequent time-dependent evaluation of 1 also showed high brain as well as plasma 2-PMPA exposures with brain-to-plasma ratios of 2.2, 0.48, and 0.26 for olfactory bulb, cortex, and cerebellum, respectively, as well as an improved sciatic nerve to plasma ratio of 0.84. In contrast, IV administration of compound 1 resulted in similar plasma exposure of 2-PMPA versus the IN route (AUCIV: 76 ± 9 h·nmol/mL versus AUCIN: 99 ± 24 h·nmol/mL); but significantly lower nerve and brain tissue exposures with tissue-to-plasma ratios of 0.21, 0.03, 0.04, and 0.04 in nerve, olfactory bulb, cortex, and cerebellum, respectively. In primates, IN administration of 1 more than doubled 2-PMPA concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid relative to previously reported levels following IN 2-PMPA. The results of these experiments provide a promising strategy for testing GCPII inhibition in neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.7b00231

DOI: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.7b00231

You might also like
Never Miss Important Research

Researcher is an app designed by academics, for academics. Create a personalised feed in two minutes.
Choose from over 15,000 academics journals covering ten research areas then let Researcher deliver you papers tailored to your interests each day.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.