5 years ago

Vitamin D and Blood Pressure Among U.S. Adults: A Cross-sectional Examination by Race/Ethnicity and Gender

The cross-sectional association of serum vitamin D levels with blood pressure and hypertension status among a representative sample of U.S. adults was examined. Methods Participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2010 were included in these analyses. Harmonizing of the vitamin D levels from 2001 to 2006 with vitamin D measurement from 2007 to 2010 was done using regression equations released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Use of vitamin D supplements was assessed for all participants. Statistical analyses included examination of linear association of vitamin D levels with blood pressure and non-linear cubic splines with hypertension in overall population, by gender, and by race/ethnicity. Results With every 10 nmol/L higher vitamin D, systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.19 mmHg in this population (p<0.01). In fully adjusted stratified analyses, this association was present among females (–0.25 mmHg, p<0.01) and non-Hispanic whites (0.22 mmHg, p<0.01). After race/ethnic and gender stratification, this association was observed among non-Hispanic white females (0.26 mmHg, p=0.01), non-Hispanic black females (0.65 mmHg, p=0.02), and marginally significant among Hispanic males (0.33 mmHg, p=0.07). Non-parametric assessment with cubic splines show that vitamin D has an inverse association with odds of hypertension up to 100 nmol/L with no apparent benefit at higher levels in overall population, and even lower threshold levels of vitamin D in non-Hispanic blacks (50 nmol/L) and Hispanic Americans (70 nmol/L). Conclusions Significant race/ethnic and gender differences exist in the association of vitamin D and systolic blood pressure. Odds for hypertension are reduced significantly at higher vitamin D levels, but this benefit plateaus at very high vitamin D levels.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0749379717303823

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.