5 years ago

Post-exercise hypotension and heart rate variability response after water- and land-ergometry exercise in hypertensive patients

Leonardo dos Santos, Francisco Luciano Pontes Junior, Aylton Figueira Junior, Roberta Luksevicius Rica, Marco Bergamin, Danilo Sales Bocalini, Alexandre Lopes Evangelista, Paulo José Ferreira Tucci, Emilly Martinelli Rossi, Andrey Jorge Serra

by Danilo Sales Bocalini, Marco Bergamin, Alexandre Lopes Evangelista, Roberta Luksevicius Rica, Francisco Luciano Pontes Junior, Aylton Figueira Junior, Andrey Jorge Serra, Emilly Martinelli Rossi, Paulo José Ferreira Tucci, Leonardo dos Santos


systemic arterial hypertension is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease; physical activity for hypertensive patients is related to several beneficial cardiovascular adaptations. This paper evaluated the effect of water- and land-ergometry exercise sessions on post-exercise hypotension (PEH) of healthy normotensive subjects versus treated or untreated hypertensive patients.


Forty-five older women composed three experimental groups: normotensive (N, n = 10), treated hypertensive (TH, n = 15) and untreated hypertensive (UH, n = 20). The physical exercise acute session protocol was performed at 75% of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) for 45 minutes; systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean (MBP) blood pressure were evaluated at rest, peak and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes after exercise cessation. Additionally, the heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed by R-R intervals in the frequency domain for the assessment of cardiac autonomic function.


In both exercise modalities, equivalent increases in SBP were observed from rest to peak exercise for all groups, and during recovery, significant PEH was noted. At 90 minutes after the exercise session, the prevalence of hypotension was significantly higher in water- than in the land-based protocol. Moreover, more pronounced reductions in SBP and DBP were observed in the UH patients compared to TH and N subjects. Finally, exercise in the water was more effective in restoring HRV during recovery, with greater effects in the untreated hypertensive group.


Our data demonstrated that water-ergometry exercise was able to induce expressive PEH and improve cardiac autonomic modulation in older normotensive, hypertensive treated or hypertensive untreated subjects when compared to conventional land-ergometry.

Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180216

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