3 years ago

Inhibition of melanization by serpin-5 and serpin-9 promotes baculovirus infection in cotton bollworm <i>Helicoverpa armigera</i>

Zhihong Hu, Mengyi Yin, Qianran Wang, Manli Wang, Longsheng Xing, Zhen Zou, Xi Wang, Chuanfei Yuan
Melanization, an important insect defense mechanism, is mediated by clip-domain serine protease (cSP) cascades and is regulated by serpins. Here we show that proteolytic activation of prophenoloxidase (PPO) and PO-catalyzed melanization kill the baculovirus in vitro. Our quantitative proteomics and biochemical experiments revealed that baculovirus infection of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, reduced levels of most cascade members in the host hemolymph and PO activity. By contrast, serpin-9 and serpin-5 were sequentially upregulated after the viral infection. The H. armigera serpin-5 and serpin-9 regulate melanization by directly inhibiting their target proteases cSP4 and cSP6, respectively and cSP6 activates PPO purified from hemolymph. Furthermore, serpin-5/9-depleted insects exhibited high PO activities and showed resistance to baculovirus infection. Together, our results characterize a part of the melanization cascade in H. armigera, and suggest that natural insect virus baculovirus has evolved a distinct strategy to suppress the host immune system.

Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article

DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006645

You might also like
Never Miss Important Research

Researcher is an app designed by academics, for academics. Create a personalised feed in two minutes.
Choose from over 15,000 academics journals covering ten research areas then let Researcher deliver you papers tailored to your interests each day.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.