5 years ago

Serum Proteomic Variability Associated with Clinical Phenotype in Familial Transthyretin Amyloidosis (ATTRm)

Serum Proteomic Variability Associated with Clinical Phenotype in Familial Transthyretin Amyloidosis (ATTRm)
Gloria G. Chan, Lawreen H. Connors, Clarissa M. Koch
Transthyretin (TTR), normally a plasma circulating protein, can become misfolded and aggregated, ultimately leading to extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils usually targeted to heart or nerve tissues. Referred to as TTR-associated amyloidoses (ATTR), this group of diseases is frequently life threatening and fatal if untreated. ATTR, caused by amyloid-forming variant TTR proteins (ATTRm) that arise from point mutations in the TTR gene, were classically referred to as familial amyloid cardiomyopathy (FAC) or familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP), reflecting the clinical phenotype. FAC and FAP are pathologies that can be challenging to diagnose as there are no definitive biomarkers of disease; moreover, disease-specific measures of progression are lacking, and treatment options are limited. Thus, the discovery of sensitive and specific indicators of disease has the potential to improve recognition, enable accurate measurement of amyloid progression and response to treatment, and reveal key information regarding FAC and FAP pathobiological mechanisms. In this study, the goal was to investigate serum proteomic features unique to FAC and FAP types of ATTRm. Multiple-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM–MS), a powerful technique in profiling proteomes, was used to measure the serum concentrations of 160 proteins in samples from FAC and FAP patients. Results were compared to data from healthy control sera obtained from individuals matched to age (≥60 years), gender (male), and race (Caucasian). Proteomic analyses of ATTRm (FAC and FAP) and control samples showed significant concentration differences in 107 of 192 (56%) of the serum proteins that were studied. In comparing FAC to FAP, differences in concentrations as well as interactions and functions of several proteins were identified as unique to each disease; significantly lower levels of TTR were specific to FAC, but not to FAP. Annotated functional clustering identified extracellular region, signal, and signal peptide as terms common to FAC and FAP. Conversely, disulfide bond was unique to FAC; secreted, glycosylation site: N-linked, glycosylation, glycoprotein, polymorphism, and sequence variant were associated solely with FAP. Predicted protein–protein associations in FAC were seen for reaction, binding, and activation processes; no associations were found in FAP. This study demonstrates significant proteomic differences between ATTRm patient and control sera, as well as ATTRm phenotype-associated variations in the circulating levels of several proteins including TTR. The identification of serum proteins unique to FAC and FAP may have diagnostic and prognostic utility and could possibly provide important clues about disease mechanisms.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.7b00479

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.7b00479

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