5 years ago

Normal range of myocardial layer-specific strain using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography

Yutaka Otsuji, Victor Chien-Chia Wu, Masaaki Takeuchi, Yasufumi Nagata

by Yasufumi Nagata, Victor Chien-Chia Wu, Yutaka Otsuji, Masaaki Takeuchi


Newer 2D strain software has a potential to assess layer-specific strain. However, normal reference values for layer-specific strain have not been established. We aimed to establish the normal ranges of layer-specific longitudinal and circumferential strain (endocardial global longitudinal strain (GLS), transmural GLS, epicardial GLS, endocardial global circumferential strain (GCS), transmural GCS, and epicardial GCS).

Methods and results

We retrospectively analyzed longitudinal and circumferential strain parameters in 235 healthy subjects, with use of layer-specific 2D speckle tracking software (GE). The endocardial strain/epicardial strain (Endo/Epi) ratio was also measured to assess the strain gradient across the myocardium. The endocardial, transmural, and epicardial GLS values and the Endo/Epi ratio in the normal subjects were -23.1±2.3, -20.0±2.0, -17.6±1.9, and 1.31±0.07, respectively. The corresponding values of GCS were -28.5±3.0, -20.8±2.3, -15.3±2.0, and 1.88±0.17, respectively. The layer-specific global strain parameters exhibited no age dependency but did exhibit gender dependency except for endocardial GCS. A subgroup analysis revealed that basal and middle levels of endocardial LS was decreased in the middle and elderly aged group. However, apical endocardial LS was preserved even in the elderly subjects.


We proposed normal reference values for layer-specific strain based on both age and gender. This detailed strain analysis provides layer-oriented information with the potential to characterize abnormal findings in various cardiovascular diseases.

Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180584

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