3 years ago

Two novel variants of the ABCG5 gene cause xanthelasmas and macrothrombocytopenia: a brief review of hematologic abnormalities of sitosterolemia

M. Girós, J. M. Hernández-Rivas, R. Benito, A. Hortal, M. Díez-Campelo, K. Janusz, S. Marcellini, M. L. Lozano, J. M. Hernández-Sánchez, J. M. Bastida, J. R. González-Porras, J. Rivera
Essentials Diagnosis of sitosterolemia, a rare recessive or syndromic disorder, is usually delayed. Peripheral blood smear is extremely useful for establishing the suspicion of sitosterolemia. High-throughput sequencing technology enables the molecular diagnosis of inherited thrombocytopenias. Accurate characterization of sitosterolemia helps us determine appropriate management. Summary Background Sitosterolemia (STSL) is a recessive inherited disorder caused by pathogenic variants in the ABCG5 and ABCG8 genes. Increased levels of plasma plant sterols (PSs) usually result in xanthomas and premature coronary atherosclerosis, although hematologic abnormalities may occasionally be present. This clinical picture is unfamiliar to many physicians, and patients may be at high risk of misdiagnosis. Objectives To report two novel ABCG5 variants causing STSL in a Spanish patient, and review the clinical and mutational landscape of STSL. Patient/Methods A 46-year-old female was referred to us with lifelong macrothrombocytopenia. She showed familial hypercholesterolemia-related xanthomas. Molecular analysis was performed with high-throughput sequencing. Plasma PS levels were evaluated with gas–liquid chromatography. The STSL landscape was reviewed with respect to specific online databases and all reports published since 1974. Results A blood smear revealed giant platelets and stomatocytes. Novel compound heterozygous variants were detected in exons 7 (c.914C>G) and 13 (c.1890delT) of ABCG5. The patient showed an increased plasma level of sitosterol. These findings support the diagnosis of STSL. In our review, we identified only 25 unrelated STLS patients who presented with hematologic abnormalities including macrothrombocytopenia. It remains unknown why only some patients develop hematologic abnormalities. Conclusions This is the first Spanish STSL patient to be reported and molecularly characterized. The early diagnosis of STLS is strongly supported by the presence of stomatocytes in blood smears. The definitive diagnosis of STSL by measurement of serum PS levels and molecular analyses prompted the use of ezetimibe therapy.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/jth.13777

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