4 years ago

Clathrin-Independent Killing of Intracellular Mycobacteria and Biofilm Disruptions Using Synthetic Antimicrobial Polymers

Clathrin-Independent Killing of Intracellular Mycobacteria and Biofilm Disruptions Using Synthetic Antimicrobial Polymers
Vinay K. Nandicoori, Aasheesh Srivastava, Divya Arora, Siddhi Gupta, Avinash Bajaj, Prabhu S. Yavvari
Current membrane targeting antimicrobials fail to target mycobacteria due to their hydrophobic membrane structure, ability to form drug-resistant biofilms, and their natural intracellular habitat within the confines of macrophages. In this work, we describe engineering of synthetic antimicrobial polymers (SAMPs) derived from biocompatible polyamides that can target drug-sensitive and drug-resistant mycobacteria with high selectivity. Structure–activity relationship studies revealed that reduced hydrophobicity of cationic pendants induces enhanced and selective permeabilization of mycobacterial membranes. The least hydrophobic SAMP (TAC1) was found to be the most active with maximum specificity toward mycobacteria over E. coli, S. aureus, and mammalian cells. Membrane perturbation studies, scanning electron microscopy, and colony PCR confirmed the ability of TAC1 to induce membrane lysis and to bind to the genomic material of mycobacteria, thereby inducing mycobacterial cell death. TAC1 was most effective in perfusing and disrupting the mycobacterial biofilms and was also able to kill the intracellular mycobacteria effectively without inducing any toxicity to mammalian cells. Cellular uptake studies revealed clathrin independent uptake of TAC1, thereby allowing it to escape hydrolytic lysosomal degradation and effectively kill the intracellular bacteria. Therefore, this manuscript presents the design and selective antimycobacterial nature of polyamide polymers with charged hydrophobic pendants that have ability to disrupt the biofilms and kill intracellular mycobacteria.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.7b00106

DOI: 10.1021/acs.biomac.7b00106

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