5 years ago

Defective Mineralization in X-Linked Hypophosphatemia Dental Pulp Cell Cultures.

X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a skeletal disease caused by inactivating mutations in the PHEX gene. Mutated or absent PHEX protein/enzyme leads to a decreased serum phosphate level, which cause mineralization defects in the skeleton and teeth (osteomalacia/odontomalacia). It is not yet altogether clear whether these manifestations are caused solely by insufficient circulating phosphate availability for mineralization or also by a direct, local intrinsic effect caused by impaired PHEX activity. Here, we evaluated the local role of PHEX in a 3-dimensional model of extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization. Dense collagen hydrogels were seeded either with human dental pulp cells from patients with characterized PHEX mutations or with sex- and age-matched healthy controls and cultured up to 24 d using osteogenic medium with standard phosphate concentration. Calcium quantification, micro-computed tomography, and histology with von Kossa staining for mineral showed significantly lower mineralization in XLH cell-seeded scaffolds, using nonparametric statistical tests. While apatitic mineralization was observed along collagen fibrils by electron microscopy in both groups, Raman microspectrometry indicated that XLH cells harboring the PHEX mutation produced less mineralized scaffolds having impaired mineral quality with less carbonate substitution and lower crystallinity. In the XLH cultures, immunoblotting revealed more abundant osteopontin (OPN), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) than controls, as well as the presence of fragments of these proteins not found in controls, suggesting a role for PHEX in SIBLING protein degradation. Immunohistochemistry revealed altered OPN and DMP1 associated with an increased alkaline phosphatase staining in the XLH cultures. These results are consistent with impaired PHEX activity having local ECM effects in XLH. Future treatments for XLH should target both systemic and local manifestations.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1177/0022034517728497

DOI: 10.1177/0022034517728497

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