4 years ago

Anti-inflammatory effects of ursodeoxycholic acid by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages

In-Bo Han, Soo-Hong Lee, Seil Sohn, Min-Jae Jo, Sung Jun Kim, Hemant Kumar, Wan-Kyu Ko

by Wan-Kyu Ko, Soo-Hong Lee, Sung Jun Kim, Min-Jae Jo, Hemant Kumar, In-Bo Han, Seil Sohn


The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.


We induced an inflammatory process in RAW 264.7 macrophages using LPS. The anti-inflammatory effects of UDCA on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages were analyzed using nitric oxide (NO). Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The phosphorylations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and nuclear factor kappa-light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) signaling pathways were evaluated by western blot assays.


UDCA decreased the LPS-stimulated release of the inflammatory mediator NO. UDCA also decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1-α (IL-1α), interleukin 1-β (IL-1β), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, UDCA increased an anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10) in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. UDCA inhibited the expression of inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, UDCA suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 signals related to inflammatory pathways. In addition, the phosphorylation of IκBα, the inhibitor of NF-κB, also inhibited by UDCA.


UDCA inhibits the pro-inflammatory responses by LPS in RAW 264.7 macrophages. UDCA also suppresses the phosphorylation by LPS on ERK, JNK, and p38 in MAPKs and NF-κB pathway. These results suggest that UDCA can serve as a useful anti-inflammatory drug.

Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180673

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.