5 years ago

Bronchoalveolar Lavage Microvesicles Protect Burn-Injured Mice from Pulmonary Infection

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among burn patients, despite antibiotic therapy. There is a need to identify innate immune defenses that prevent P aeruginosa infection in injured adults in an effort to find therapeutic alternatives to antibiotics. Here, we tested our hypothesis that microvesicles (MVs) in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid have a role in the immunity of the lung in response to pathogens. Study Design Microvesicles were isolated from murine BAL fluid, quantified using Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and injected into burn-injured mice before P aeruginosa infection. Survival was assessed and BAL bacterial loads enumerated. Neutrophil number and interleukin 6 activity were determined. Lungs were harvested and sphingosine (SPH) content analyzed via immunohistochemistry. Antimicrobial effects of MVs and SPH-enriched MVs were assessed in an in vitro assay. Results Burn-injured mice have reduced BAL MV number and SPH content compared with sham. When BAL MVs from healthy mice are administered to injured mice, survival and bacterial clearance are improved robustly. We also observed that intranasal administration of MVs restores SPH levels after burn injury, MVs kill bacteria directly, and this bacterial killing is increased when the MVs are supplemented with SPH. Conclusions Using a preclinical model, BAL MVs are reduced after scald injury and BAL MV restoration to injured mice improves survival and bacterial clearance. The antimicrobial mechanisms leading to improved survival include the quantity and SPH content of BAL MVs.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S1072751517305926

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