3 years ago

Terminalia catappa: Chemical composition, in vitro and in vivo effects on Haemonchus contortus

Haemonchus contortus is the most important nematode in small ruminant systems, and has developed tolerance to all commercial anthelmintics in several countries. In vitro (egg hatch assay) and in vivo tests were performed with a multidrug strain of Haemonchus contortus using Terminalia catappa leaf, fruit pulp, and seed extracts (in vitro), or pulp and seed powder in lambs experimentally infected with H. contortus. Crude extracts from leaves, fruit pulp and seeds obtained with 70% acetone were lyophilized until used. In vitro, the extracts had LC50 =2.48μg/mL (seeds), LC50 =4.62μg/mL (pulp), and LC50 =20μg/mL (leaves). In vitro, seed and pulp extracts had LC50 similar to Thiabendazole (LC50 =1.31μg/mL). Condensed tannins were more concentrated in pulp extract (183.92g of leucocyanidin/kg dry matter) than in either leaf (4.6g) or seed (35.13g) extracts. Phytochemical tests established that all extracts contained alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, and terpenoids. Based on these results, in vivo tests were performed to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of T. catappa whole fruit (pulp+seed) powder. Male Santa Ines lambs were artificially infected with multidrug-resistant H. contortus and divided, according to similar fecal egg count (FEC) and weight, into two groups: Control (infected/untreated) and treated (infected/treated with whole fruit powder). Whole fruit powder was mixed with concentrate and provided at 2g/kg of body weight (BW) for five days. After treatment, parasitological analysis (FEC and egg hatch assay), renal profile (urea and creatinine), liver profile (aspartate aminotransferase) and BW were determined. In vitro (based on LC50), seed/pulp extracts had ovicidal effect similar to Thiabendazole but whole fruit powder had no anthelmintic effect on adult nematodes in the abomasum. We discuss the plausible causes of the lack of in vivo activity.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0304401717303849

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