5 years ago

(E)-1,1,4,4-Tetramethyl-2-tetrazene (TMTZ): A Prospective Alternative to Hydrazines in Rocket Propulsion

(E)-1,1,4,4-Tetramethyl-2-tetrazene (TMTZ): A Prospective Alternative to Hydrazines in Rocket Propulsion
Henri Delalu, Duc-Minh Le, Anne Dhenain, Emilie Labarthe, Anne-Julie Bougrine, Carlos Miró Sabaté, Jérôme Guitton, Chaza Darwich, Emmanuel Lacôte, Guy Jacob, Léa Payen
1,1,4,4-Tetramethyl-2-tetrazene (TMTZ) is considered as a prospective replacement for toxic hydrazines used in liquid rocket propulsion. The heat of formation of TMTZ was computed and measured, giving values well above those of the hydrazines commonly used in propulsion. This led to a predicted maximum Isp of 337 s for TMTZ/N2O4 mixtures, which is a value comparable to that of monomethylhydrazine. We found that TMTZ has a vapor pressure well below that of liquid hydrazines, and it is far less toxic. Finally, an improved synthesis is proposed, which is compatible with existing industrial production facilities after minor changes. TMTZ is thus an attractive liquid propellant candidate, with a performance comparable to hydrazines but a lower vapor pressure and toxicity. Rocket man: The oxidation 1,1′-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) with monochloramine yields 1,1,4,4-tetramethyl-2-tetrazene (TMTZ). The new process has great potential to be used for the large scale continuous synthesis of the compound, which is a promising candidate to replace liquid hydrazines in rocket propulsion.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/chem.201701468

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