5 years ago

Maternal hypercholesterolemia enhances oxysterol concentration in mothers and newly-weaned offspring but is attenuated by maternal phytosterol supplementation

In hypercholesterolemic pregnancies, the maternal environment is characterized by excessive levels of atherogenic lipids that may increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in mothers and their offspring. We examined the influence of maternal hypercholesterolemia and phytosterol (PS) intervention on the concentration and metabolism of oxysterols, bioactive oxygenated cholesterol derivatives that regulate arterial health and lesion progression, in mothers and their newly-weaned offspring. Twenty-one female apoE−/− mice were randomly assigned to three different diets throughout gestation and lactation: i) chow (chow); ii) high cholesterol (CH; 0.15%); and iii) CH with added PS (2%, CH/PS). At the end of the lactation period, mothers and pups were euthanized for serum and hepatic oxysterol analyses, hepatic transcriptional profiling of hepatic sterol regulatory targets, and atherosclerosis. Hypercholesterolemic dams and their pups demonstrated increased (p˂0.05) serum oxysterols [including 24 hydroxycholesterol (24HC), 25HC, 27HC, 7αHC, 7βHC, and 7 ketocholesterol (KC)] compared with the chow group that were normalized by maternal PS supplementation. Hepatic oxysterol concentrations followed a similar pattern of response in mothers but were not altered in newly-weaned pups. Hepatic mRNA expression suggested a pattern of enhanced abca1/g1 HDL-mediated efflux but a reduction in biliary abcg5/g8 export in both dams and their pups. Although arterial lesions were not apparent in newly-weaned pups, CH dams demonstrated enhanced atherosclerosis that was reduced upon PS intervention. These results demonstrate that offspring from hypercholesterolemic pregnancies have enhanced circulating oxysterol concentrations and highlights the potential utility of PS as a lipid-lowering option during hypercholesterolemic pregnancies for which there is currently limited options.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0955286317304746

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