3 years ago

Whole-Grain Starch and Fiber Composition Modifies Ileal Flow of Nutrients and Nutrient Availability in the Hindgut, Shifting Fecal Microbial Profiles in Pigs.

Zijlstra, Gänzle, Vasanthan, Beattie, Fouhse
Background: Changes in whole-grain chemical composition can affect the site of nutrient digestion, which may alter substrate availability and gut microbiota composition.Objectives: This study elucidated the function of whole-grain fermentable fiber composition on ileal substrate flow, hindgut substrate availability, and subsequent gut microbial profiles in pigs.Methods: Five whole grains-1) high-fermentability, high-β-glucan hull-less barley (HFB); 2) high-fermentability, high-amylose hull-less barley (HFA); 3) moderate-fermentability hull-less barley (MFB); 4) low-fermentability hulled barley (LFB); or 5) low-fermentability hard red spring wheat (LFW)-were included at 800 g/kg into diets fed to ileal-cannulated growing pigs for 9 d in a 6 (periods) × 5 (diets) Youden square. Digesta were analyzed for nutrient flow and microbial composition via 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing.Results: The consumption of fermentable whole grains, HFB, and HFA increased (P < 0.05) ileal starch flow by 69% and dry matter flow by 37% compared with LFB and LFW intakes. The consumption of HFB and HFA increased (P < 0.05) fecal Firmicutes phylum abundance by 26% and 21% compared with LFB intake and increased (P < 0.05) fecal Dialister genus abundance, on average, by 98% compared with LFB and LFW intakes. Fecal Sharpea and Ruminococcus genera abundances increased (P < 0.05) with HFB intake compared with LFB and LFW intakes. In contrast, the consumption of LFB increased (P < 0.05) fecal Bacteroidetes phylum abundance by 43% compared with MFB intake. Ileal starch flow and fecal Firmicutes abundance were positively correlated and determined by using principal components analysis.Conclusions: Increasing dietary fermentable fiber from whole grains can increase ileal substrate flow and hindgut substrate availability, shifting the fecal microbiota toward Firmicutes phylum members. Thus, digesta substrate flow is important to shape gut microbial profiles in pigs, which indicates that the manipulation of substrate flow should be considered as a tool to modulate gut microbiota composition.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.3945/jn.117.255851

DOI: 10.3945/jn.117.255851

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