5 years ago

Enhanced interlaminar excitation or reduced superficial layer inhibition in neocortex generates different spike and wave-like electrographic events in vitro.

Cunningham, Schofield, Adams, Hall, Whittington, Traub, Jenkins
Acute In vitro models have revealed a great deal of information about mechanisms underlying many types of epileptiform activity. However, few examples exist that shed light on spike and wave (SpW) patterns of pathological activity. SpW are seen in many epilepsy syndromes, both generalised and focal, and manifest across the entire age spectrum. They are heterogeneous in terms of their severity, symptom burden and apparent anatomical origin (thalamic, neocortical or both), but any relationship between this heterogeneity and underlying pathology remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that physiological delta frequency rhythms act as an effective substrate to permit modelling of SpW of cortical origin and may help to address this issue. For a starting point of delta activity, multiple subtypes of SpW could be modelled computationally and experimentally by either enhancing the magnitude of excitatory synaptic events ascending from neocortical layer 5 to layers 2/3 or selectively modifying superficial layer GABAergic inhibition. The former generated SpW containing multiple field spikes with long interspike intervals whereas the latter generated SpW with short-interval multiple field spikes. Both types had different laminar origins and each disrupted interlaminar cortical dynamics in a different manner. A small number of examples of human recordings from patients with different diagnoses revealed SpW subtypes with the same temporal signatures, suggesting that detailed quantification of the pattern of spikes in SpW discharges may be a useful indicator of disparate underlying epileptogenic pathologies.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00516.2017

DOI: 10.1152/jn.00516.2017

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