3 years ago

Phase imaging and nanoscale energy dissipation of supported graphene using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy.

Vasic, Gajic, Matkovic
We investigate phase imaging of supported graphene using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (AFM), so called, tapping mode. The phase contrast between graphene and neighbouring substrate grows at hard tapping conditions and the contrast is enhanced compared to the topographic one. Therefore, the phase measurements could enable a high contrast imaging of graphene and related two dimensional materials and heterostructures, not achievable with conventional AFM based topographic measurements. Obtained phase maps are then transformed into energy dissipation maps which are important for graphene applications in various mechanical systems. From fundamental point of view, the energy dissipation gives further insights into mechanical properties. Reliable measurements, obtained in the repulsive regime, show that the energy dissipation on graphene covered substrate is lower than on bare one, so graphene provides a certain shielding in tip-substrate interaction. According to obtained phase curves and their derivatives, as well as according to correlation measurements based on AFM nanoindentation and force modulation microscopy, we conclude that the main dissipation channels in graphene-substrate systems are short range hysteresis and long range interfacial forces.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aa8e3b

DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aa8e3b

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