3 years ago

Molecular analysis of human solute carrier SLC26 anion transporter disease-causing mutations using 3-dimensional homology modeling

Molecular analysis of human solute carrier SLC26 anion transporter disease-causing mutations using 3-dimensional homology modeling
The availability of the first crystal structure of a bacterial member (SLC26Dg) of the solute carrier SLC26 family of anion transporters has allowed us to create 3-dimensional models of all 10 human members (SLC26A1-A11, A10 being a pseudogene) of these membrane proteins using the Phyre2 bioinformatic tool. The homology modeling predicted that the SLC26 human proteins, like the SLC26Dg template, all consist of 14 transmembrane segments (TM) arranged in a 7+7 inverted topology with the amino-termini of two half-helices (TM3 and 10) facing each other in the centre of the protein to create the anion-binding site, linked to a C-terminal cytosolic sulfate transporter anti-sigma factor antagonist (STAS) domain. A plethora of human diseases are associated with mutations in the genes encoding human SLC26 transporters, including chondrodysplasias with varying severity in SLC26A2 (~50 mutations, 27 point mutations), congenital chloride-losing diarrhea in SLC26A3 (~70 mutations, 31 point mutations) and Pendred Syndrome or deafness autosomal recessive type 4 in SLC26A4 (~500 mutations, 203 point mutations). We have localized all of these point mutations in the 3-dimensional structures of the respective SLC26A2, A3 and A4 proteins and systematically analyzed their effect on protein structure. While most disease-causing mutations may cause folding defects resulting in impaired trafficking of these membrane glycoproteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface – as demonstrated in a number of functional expression studies – the modeling also revealed that a number of pathogenic mutations are localized to the anion-binding site, which may directly affect transport function.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0005273617302900

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