3 years ago

Graphene-Based Functional Architectures: Sheets Regulation and Macrostructure Construction toward Actuators and Power Generators

Graphene-Based Functional Architectures: Sheets Regulation and Macrostructure Construction toward Actuators and Power Generators
Huhu Cheng, Liangti Qu, Gaoquan Shi, Yaxin Huang, Lan Jiang
Graphene, with large delocalized π electron cloud on a two-dimensional (2D) atom-thin plane, possesses excellent carrier mobility, large surface area, high light transparency, high mechanical strength, and superior flexibility. However, the lack of intrinsic band gap, poor dispersibility, and weak reactivity of graphene hinder its application scope. Heteroatom-doping regulation and surface modification of graphene can effectively reconstruct the sp2 bonded carbon atoms and tailor the surface chemistry and interfacial interaction, while microstructure mediation on graphene can induce the special chemical and physical properties because of the quantum confinement, edge effect, and unusual mass transport process. Based on these regulations on graphene, series of methods and techniques are developed to couple the promising characters of graphene into the macroscopic architectures for potential and practical applications. In this Account, we present our effort on graphene regulation from chemical modification to microstructure control, from the morphology-designed macroassemblies to their applications in functional systems excluding the energy-storage devices. We first introduce the chemically regulative graphene with incorporated heteroatoms into the honeycomb lattice, which could open the intrinsic band gap and provide many active sites. Then the surface modification of graphene with functional components will improve dispersibility, prevent aggregation, and introduce new functions. On the other hand, microstructure mediation on graphene sheets (e.g., 0D quantum dots, 1D nanoribbons, and 2D nanomeshes) is demonstrated to induce special chemical and physical properties. Benefiting from the effective regulation on graphene sheets, diverse methods including dimension-confined strategy, filtration assembly, and hydrothermal treatment have been developed to assemble individual graphene sheets to macroscopic graphene fibers, films, and frameworks. These rationally regulated graphene sheets and well-constructed assemblies present promising applications in energy-conversion materials and device systems focusing on actuators that can convert different energy forms (e.g., electric, chemical, photonic, thermal, etc.) to mechanical actuation and electrical generators that can directly transform environmental energy to electric power.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.accounts.7b00131

DOI: 10.1021/acs.accounts.7b00131

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