Kang, Lee, Kim, Moon, Cho
Cushing's syndrome (CS) caused by hypercortisolism is occasionally accompanied by metabolic disorders such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia and central obesity. Thus, morbidity and mortality, observed in cardiovascular disease, are elevated in patients with CS. We hypothesized that HDAC inhibition (HDACi) decreased transcriptional activity of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which ameliorates hypertension and hyperglycemia in patients with CS. To establish an animal model of hypercortisolism, Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, 40 ng/day) or dexamethasone (Dex, 10 μg/day) via osmotic minipumps for 4 weeks. Expression of GR target genes was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). GR enrichment on specific loci, and across the whole genome, was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and ChIPseq respectively. HDACi decreased blood pressure and expression of ion regulators in the kidneys of ACTH-infused rats. Additionally, HDACi reduced deposition of polysaccharide, fasting blood glucose level, glucose intolerance, and expression of gluconeogenesis genes in the livers and kidneys of ACTH- and Dex-infused rats. Among class I HDACs, HDAC1 and HDAC3 interacted with GR. HDAC1 knockdown resulted in increased level of acetylation and decreased transcriptional activity of GR. GR recruitment on the promoters of 2,754 genes, which include ion transporters, channels, and gluconeogenic genes was significantly decreased by MS-275, a class I HDAC inhibitor. These results indicate that HDACi ameliorate hypertension and hyperglycemia in a model of CS by decreasing the transcriptional activity of GR via elevating its level of acetylation.