5 years ago

Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is critical for progression of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2)-deficient tumors.

Teter, Zaitsev, Holman, Tsokolaeva, Parfyonova, Stepanova, Atochina-Vasserman, Cines, Obraztsova, Lewis, Zabozlaev, Dergilev, Krymskaya, Volgina
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a fatal lung disease associated with germline or somatic inactivating mutations in tuberous sclerosis complex genes (TSC1 or TSC2). LAM is characterized by neoplastic growth of smooth muscle (SM)-α-actin-positive cells, that destroy lung parenchyma, and by the formation of benign renal neoplasms called angiolipomas. The mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitor rapamycin slows progression of these diseases, but is not curative and associated with notable toxicity at clinically effective doses, highlighting the need for better understanding LAM's molecular etiology. We report here that LAM lesions and angiomyolipomas overexpress urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Tsc1-/- and Tsc2-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts expressed higher uPA levels than their WT counterparts, resulting from the TSC inactivation. Inhibition of uPA expression in Tsc2-null cells reduced the growth and invasiveness and increased susceptibility to apoptosis. However, rapamycin further increased uPA expression in TSC2-null tumor cells and immortalized TSC2-null angiomyolipoma cells, but not in cells with intact TSC. Induction of glucocorticoid receptor signaling or forkhead box (FOXO) 1/3 inhibition abolished the rapamycininduced uPA expression in TSC-compromised cells. Moreover, rapamycin-enhanced migration of TSC2-null cells was inhibited by the uPA inhibitor UK122, dexamethasone, and a FOXO inhibitor. uPA-knockout mice developed fewer and smaller TSC2-null lung tumors, and introduction of uPA shRNA in tumor cells or amiloride-induced uPA inhibition reduced tumorigenesis in vivo. These findings suggest that interference with the uPA-dependent pathway, when used along with rapamycin, might attenuate LAM progression and potentially other TSC-related disorders.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M117.799593

DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M117.799593

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