5 years ago

Microneedle pH Sensor: Direct, Label-Free, Real-Time Detection of Cerebrospinal Fluid and Bladder pH

Microneedle pH Sensor: Direct, Label-Free, Real-Time Detection of Cerebrospinal Fluid and Bladder pH
Minoru Kimura, Kagemasa Kajiwara, Kazuyoshi Tsuchiya, Asuka Saito, Kousei Miyakoda, Ganesh Kumar Mani, Yutaka Yasoda
Acid–base homeostasis (body pH) inside the body is precisely controlled by the kidneys and lungs and buffer systems, such that even a minor pH change could severely affect many organs. Blood and urine pH tests are common in day-to-day clinical trials and require little effort for diagnosis. There is always a great demand for in vivo testing to understand more about body metabolism and to provide effective diagnosis and therapy. In this article, we report the simple fabrication of microneedle-based direct, label-free, and real-time pH sensors. The reference and working electrodes were Ag/AgCl thick films and ZnO thin films on tungsten (W) microneedles, respectively. The morphological and structural characteristics of microneedles were carefully investigated through various analytical methods. The developed sensor exhibited a Nernstian response of −46 mV/pH. Different conditions were used to test the sensor to confirm their accuracy and stability, such as various buffer solutions, with respect to time, and we compared the reading with commercial pH electrodes. Besides that, the fabricated microneedle sensor ability is proven by in vivo testing in mouse cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and bladders. The pH sensor procedure reported here is totally reversible, and results were reproducible after several rounds of testing.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b04225

DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b04225

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