3 years ago

Genetic changes in a novel breeding population of Brassica napus synthesized from hundreds of crosses between B. rapa and B. carinata

Rod J. Snowdon, Xiaohua Wang, Xueqi Shen, Meng Wang, Jun Zou, Shihao Chang, Fabian Grandke, Nian Wang, Annaliese S. Mason, Jinling Meng, Dandan Hu
Introgression of genomic variation between and within related crop species is a significant evolutionary approach for population differentiation, genome reorganization and trait improvement. Using the Illumina Infinium Brassica 60K SNP array, we investigated genomic changes in a panel of advanced generation new-type Brassica napus breeding lines developed from hundreds of interspecific crosses between 122 Brassica rapa and 74 Brassica carinata accessions, and compared them with representative accessions of their three parental species. The new-type B. napus population presented rich genetic diversity and abundant novel genomic alterations, consisting of introgressions from B. rapa and B. carinata, novel allelic combinations, reconstructed linkage disequilibrium patterns and haplotype blocks, and frequent deletions and duplications (nonrandomly distributed), particularly in the C subgenome. After a much shorter, but very intensive, selection history compared to traditional B. napus, a total of 15 genomic regions with strong selective sweeps and 112 genomic regions with putative signals of selective sweeps were identified. Some of these regions were associated with important agronomic traits that were selected for during the breeding process, while others were potentially associated with restoration of genome stability and fertility after interspecific hybridization. Our results demonstrate how a novel method for population-based crop genetic improvement can lead to rapid adaptation, restoration of genome stability and positive responses to artificial selection.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/pbi.12791

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