5 years ago

Entamoeba histolytica-Induced Mucin Exocytosis Is Mediated by VAMP8 and Is Critical in Mucosal Innate Host Defense.

Gaisano, Moreau, Chadee, Cornick
Intestinal mucus secretion is critical in maintaining mucosal host defense against a myriad of pathogens by preventing direct association with the epithelium. Entamoeba histolytica specifically binds colonic MUC2 mucin and also induces potent hypersecretion from goblet cells; however, characterization of the nature of the mechanisms controlling mucus release remains elusive. In this report, we identify vesicle SNARE vesicle-associated membrane protein 8 (VAMP8) present on mucin granules as orchestrating regulated exocytosis in human goblet cells in response to the presence of E. histolytica VAMP8 was specifically activated during E. histolytica infection, and ablation of VAMP8 led to impaired mucin secretion. As a consequence, loss of VAMP8 increased E. histolytica adherence to epithelial cells associated with enhanced cell death through apoptosis characterized by caspase 3 and 9 cleavages and DNA fragmentation. With the mucosal barrier compromised in Vamp8(-/-) animals, E. histolytica induced an aggressive proinflammatory response with elevated levels of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion. This report is the first to characterize regulated mucin exocytosis in intestinal goblet cells in response to a pathogen and the downstream consequences of improper mucin secretion in mucosal barrier defense.IMPORTANCE The intestinal tract is exposed to countless substances and pathogens, and yet homeostasis is maintained, in part by the mucus layer that houses the microbiota and spatially separates potential threats from the underlying single layer of epithelium. Despite the critical role of mucus in innate host defense, characterization of the mechanisms by which mucus is secreted from specialized goblet cells in the gut remains elusive. Here, we describe the machinery that regulates mucus secretion as well as the consequence during infection with the colonic pathogen Entamoeba histolytica Abolishment of the key machinery protein VAMP8 abrogated mucus release in cultured human colonic goblet cells and during E. histolytica infection in Vamp8(-/-) mice, which showed enhanced amoeba contact and killing of epithelial cells, triggering a potent proinflammatory response. This report highlights the importance of the VAMP8 secretory machinery in facilitating mucus release from intestinal goblet cells and the dire consequences that occur during disease pathogenesis if these pathways are not functional.

Publisher URL: http://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01323-17

DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01323-17

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