3 years ago

In and out of the Neotropics: historical biogeography of Eneopterinae crickets

Frédéric Legendre, Jiajia Dong, Natállia Vicente, Karla Yotoko, Romain Nattier, Tony Robillard, Gael J. Kergoat
Aim Multiple biogeographical scenarios involving vicariance and different colonization routes can explain disjunct species distributions in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, we tested several alternative hypotheses in Eneopterinae crickets, a diverse subfamily presenting a disjunct worldwide distribution. We inferred a dated phylogeny of Eneopterinae and reconstructed their biogeographical history to unravel the origin of their present-day distribution, focusing on their multiple origins in the Neotropics. Location Worldwide. Methods We sampled 62 eneopterine species representing all extant genera. We inferred their phylogenetic relationships through Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches based on four mitochondrial and three nuclear gene sequences. Divergence time estimates were inferred using Bayesian relaxed clock approaches and primary fossil calibrations. Biogeographical analyses were conducted with the default dispersal–extinction–cladogenesis (DEC) model and a variant model (DEC+J), which accounts for rare-jump dispersal events. Results Our dating analyses showed that the Eneopterinae is far older than expected and its diversification can be traced back to the Late Cretaceous (c. 76 Ma). In this context, the most supported biogeographical scenario (under DEC+J) suggests that the Neotropics were colonized twice independently: first during the break-up of Gondwana, when Antarctica, Australia and South America started separating (compatible with a vicariance event if relying on the result of the DEC model alone); later through a northern recolonization originating from Southeast Asia, likely related to a Holarctic Boreotropical distribution of an eneopterine lineage during the Eocene. Main conclusions We provided a dated worldwide biogeographical framework for the Eneopterinae crickets. Overall, the subfamily disjunct distribution pattern is better explained by both ancient and recent dispersal events. Whether this could reflect a widespread pattern in insect groups exhibiting a disjunct distribution remains to be investigated by studying other insect lineages. The information gathered here will also help foster new directions for future studies concerning the acoustic innovations of this clade.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/jbi.13026

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