3 years ago

Engineering Cardiovascular Implant Surfaces to Create a Vascular Endothelial Growth Microenvironment

Jingan Li, Kun Zhang, Nan Huang
Cardiovascular disease is generally accepted as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and an increasing number of patients suffer from atherosclerosis and thrombosis annually. To treat these disorders and prolong the sufferers' life, several cardiovascular implants have been developed and applied clinically. Nevertheless, thrombosis and hyperplasia at the site of cardiovascular implants are recognized as long-term problems in the practice of interventional cardiology. Here, we start this review from the clinical requirement of the implants, such as anti-hyperplasia, anti-thrombosis and pro-endothelialization, wherein particularly focus on the natural factors which influence functional endothelialization in situ, including the healthy smooth muscle cells (SMCs) environment, blood flow shear stress (BFSS) and the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment. Then, the currently available strategies on surface modification of cardiovascular biomaterials to create vascular endothelial growth microenvironment are introduced as the main topic, e.g. BFSS effect simulation by surface micro-patterning, ECM rational construction and SMCs phenotype maintain. Finally, the prospects for extending use of the in situ construction of endothelial cells growth microenvironment are discussed and summarized in designing the next generation of vascular implants.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/biot.201600401

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