4 years ago

Citric Acid Modulated Growth of Oriented Lead Perovskite Crystals for Efficient Solar Cells

Citric Acid Modulated Growth of Oriented Lead Perovskite Crystals for Efficient Solar Cells
Yuki Itabashi, Henry Halim, Yunlong Guo, Eiichi Nakamura, Kazutaka Shoyama, Rui Shang, Wataru Sato
Solar cells made of lead perovskite crystals have attracted much attention for their high performance, but far less attention as a subject of crystal engineering. Here, we report that citric acid (CA) and chloride anion, working together, modulate crystal growth of CH3NH3PbI3, producing sub-mm-sized cuboid crystals—a morphology more suitable for close packing in a thin film than the commonly observed elongated dodecahedral morphology. By using a 15 wt % CA-doped precursor solution, we formed a single layer of large, flat, and oriented cuboid crystals with minimum crystal domain boundaries and maximum contact with neighboring layers, and fabricated an archetypal inverted-structured device of 4 mm2 area, which showed, reproducibly and with little hysteresis, 16.75% power conversion efficiency (PCE), 26% higher than the PCE obtained for a polycrystalline film made without CA doping. Under weaker irradiation of a 1 cm2 device, the PCE improved from 14.52% (one sun) to 20.4% (0.087 suns). Under illumination with white light emitting diode, a 10 wt % CA-doped device showed PCE of 28.1%, suggesting an advantage of PVK-SCs for indoor applications. Further studies on crystal growth modulation will be beneficial for manufacturing efficient and stable lead perovskite solar cells.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b03856

DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b03856

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